Cyprus island
    Cyprus island

    Cyprus 

    Cyprus (Greek: Κύρρο)) Officially Republic of Cyprus (in Greek: Κυρριακή ηημοκρατία) is an island-state in the eastern Mediterranean basin of south-eastern Europe and north-west Asia. Gained independence in 1960 from Britain. After the Turkish military intervention in 1974, it was divided into two parts with a Greek majority (in the center and south) and a Turkish majority (in the north). In 1983, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was declared Turkish.

    • Area

    The area of ​​Cyprus is about 9,250 square kilometers, called the plain located in the center of the country in Mizoriya.

    • Mountains

    There are two mountain ranges in the country: in the north is the mountain range of Pentacatelos and in the south and west of the Troodos mountain range. Most of the plains are located on the southern coast.

    • Population

    The country's population is divided ethnically, linguistically and religiously according to the current political division to a Greek part in the center and south and a Turkish part in the north. The two communities are similar in social customs and differ in many other matters, especially religion.

    • Languages

    The Greek language is especially spoken in the south while the Turkish language is in the north. This linguistic division dates back only to the period after the founding of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in the north and the exodus of Greeks from north to south. Before that, Greek was the most widespread language. English is widely used, due to the period of British colonization of this island.

    • Religion

    Just as language, religion is divided by sect. The Greek Cypriots condemn Orthodox Christianity, while the Turkish Cypriots condemn the religion of Islam.

    Religion in the Greek section
    Orthodoxy
     
    94.8%
    Islam
     
    0.6%
    Protestantism
     
    1%
    Other
     
    3.8%
    According to the 2011 census, 94.8% of the population of the Republic of Cyprus (Greek part of the island) are Orthodox Christians, 0.9% Armenians, Maronites, Roman Catholics 1.5%, 1.0% Church of England, 0.6% Muslims. 3% of other religious communities.



    • The ancient peoples that inhabited the island date back about 6000 BC. The Greeks settled in 1200 BC and established the cities of cities that were similar to the ancient Greek cities. Before Christ, Cyprus invaded Assyrians, Egyptians, Greeks, Persians and Romans. St. Paul and St. Barnabas entered Christianity in 45 AD. In 330 AD, Cyprus became part of the Byzantine Empire. In 1191 Richard of the Lion King of England seized Cyprus but sold it to a French nobleman. The Ottoman Turks occupied the island in the 1770s and ruled it until 1878 when they handed it over to Britain, which turned the island into a royal colony in 1925.

    • In the 1950s, the Greek Cypriots, led by Bishop Makarios, launched a political campaign of union with Greece, forming a secret organization known as Aioca, which launched a violent guerrilla war against the British. Britain declared a state of emergency on the island in 1955. In 1956, Britain denied Makarios to the island of Seychelles in the Indian Ocean. The Turks and Greeks met in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1959, and reached an agreement that Cyprus would become an independent state. Britain agreed to the Zurich agreement and Cyprus gained independence on August 16, 1960 under a constitution drawn up by Britain, Greece and Turkey with the consent of Turkish and Greek Cypriot leaders. Britain, Greece and Turkey signed an agreement guaranteeing Cyprus independence.Britain, Greece and Turkey signed an agreement guaranteeing Cyprus independence. Britain retained control of two military bases in Akrotiri and Dekkelia along the southern coast.Bishop Makarios became president of the new state, and in 1963 he proposed thirteen amendments to the constitution, claiming that this would lead to better governance of the country. He said that some articles of the Constitution threaten the performance of the government paralyzed. Both the Turks and the Turkish Cypriot leaders opposed the constitutional amendments in the belief that they would rob the Turkish Cypriots of their constitutional rights and guarantees. Fighting broke out between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots. In 1964, the United Nations sent peacekeepers to Cyprus, while efforts were being made to resolve the problem. In 1967 another conflict broke out between the two groups, leading to a new crisis.
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